Varanus reference list

I have progressively collected literature on Varanids over a number of years and thought the information might be of use to others. Obviously the list is far from complete and invariably it will contain a number of errors. It would therefore be appreciated if you would draw errors and omissions to my attention by emailing me at:


Additional material

I would also appreciate receiving copies of articles, manuscripts or other material on varanids not listed here. If you would kindly send them to:

Dr Graham Thompson
Centre for Ecosystem Management
Edith Cowan University
100 Joondalup Drive,
Western Australia
Australia, 6027

I will post it to this list on a periodic basis.

Reference List

Abel, F. (1998). Status, population biology and conservation of the Water Monitor (Varanus salvator), the Reticulated Python (Python reticulatus), and the Blood Python (Python curtus) in Sumatra and Kalimantan, Indonesia - Project Report North Sumatra. Mertensiella, 9, 111-117.

Alberts, A. (in press). Off to see the lizard: Lessons from the wild. The Vivarium.

Andrews, H. V. (1995). Sexual maturation in Varanus salvator (Laurenti, 1978), with notes on growth and reproductive effort. Herpetological Journal, 5, 189-194.

Angelici, F. M. & Luiselli, L. (1999). Aspects of the ecology of Varanus niloticus (Reptilia, Varanidae) in southeastern Nigeria, and their contribution to the knowledge of the evolutionary history of V. nilotus species complex. Rev. Ecol. (Terre Vie), 54, 29-42.

Andrews, H. V., & Gaulke, M. (1990). Observations on the reproductive biology and growth of the water monitor (Varanus salvator) at Madras crocodile bank. Hamadryad, 15(1), 1-5.

Auffenberg, W. (1981). The Behavioral Ecology of the Komodo Monitor. Gainesville: University Presses of Florida .

Auffenberg, W. (1994). The Bengal Monitor. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

Auffenberg, W. (1983). The burrows of Varanus bengalensis: characteristics and use. Rec. Zool. Surv. India, 80, 375-385.

Auffenberg, W. (1988). Gray's Monitor Lizard. Gainesville: University Presses of Florida.

Auffenberg, W., Arain, Q. N., & Khurshid, N. (1991). Preferred habitat, home range and movement patterns of Varanus bengalensis in southern Pakistan. Mertensiella, 2, 7-28.

Auffenberg, W., Rahman, H., Iffat, F., & Perveen, Z. (1989). A Study of Varanus flavescens (Hardwicke and Gray) (Sauria: Varanidae). J. Bombay Natural History Society, 86(3), 286-37.

Auffenberg, W., Rehman, H., Iffat, F., & Perveen, Z. (1990). Notes on the biology of Varanus griseus koniecznyi I Mertens Sauria: Varanidae. J. Bombay Natural History Society, 87(1), 26-36.

Auffenberg, W. (1981). Combat behaviour in Varanus bengalensis (Sauria: Varanidae). J. Bombay Natural History Society, 7(1), 54-72.

Auffenberg, W. (1979). Intersexual differences in behavior of captive Varanus bengalensis (Reptilia, Lacertilia, Varanidae). J. Herpetology, 13(3), 313-315.

Banerjee, V., & Banerjee, M. (1969). Seasonal variations of erythrocyte number and haemoglobin content in a common Indian lizard Varanus monitor (Linnaeus). Zool. Anz., 182, 23-27.

Barnett, B. (1979). Incubation of sand goanna (Varanus gouldii) eggs. Herpetofauna, 11(1), 21-22.

Bartholomew G. A., & Tucker V. A. (1964). Size, body temperature, thermal conductance, oxygen consumption, and heart rate in Australian Varanid lizards. Physiol. Zool., 27(4), 341-354.

Bartlett, R. D. (1982). Initial observation on the captive reproduction of Varanus storri, Mertens. Herpetofauna, 13(2), 6-7.

Bayless, M. (1992). African varanids: Diets in captivity and the wild. Varanews, 2(5), 2-3.

Bayless, M. (1992). Notes on the reproductive behavior of the Nile monitor lizard Varanus niloticus Linnaeus (1766). Varanews, 2(4), 5-6.

Bayless, M. (1994). The Papuan monitor lizard of New Guinea (Varanus salvadorii Peters and Doria, 1878): Notes on its mystique. Varanews, 4(2/3), 6.

Bayless, M. K. (1992). Reproductive notes on the black roughneck monitor lizard (Varanus rudicollis Gray, 1845). Varanews, 3(2), 2.

Bayless, M. K. (1994). Zur fortpflanzungsbiologie des steppenwarans (Varanus exanthematicus). Salamandra, 30(2), 109-118.

Bayless, M. K., & Reynolds.T. Breeding of the savannah monitor lizard in captivity (Varanus exanthematicus. Bosc, 1792). Southwestern Herpetologists Society, 22(1), 12-14.

Bayless, M., & Dwyer, Q. (1997). Notes on the Peach-throated Monitor. Reptile & Amphibian Magazine, 47, 26-30.

Bayless, M., & Huffaker, R. (1992). Observation of egg deposition and hatching of the savannah monitor (Varanus exanthematicus Bosc, 1792) in captivity. Varanews, 3(1), 5-6.

Bayless, M., Huffaker, R., & Maercks, O. (1994). Notes on the egg deposition and incubation of the Argus monitor (Varanus gouldii horni, Gray 1838) in captivity. Varanews, 4(1), 5.

Becker, H. O. (1991). The lung morphology of Varanus yemenensis Bohme et al. 1989, and its bearing on the systematics of the Afro-Asian monitor radiation. Mertensiella, 2(29-37).

Becker, H.-O., Bohme, W., & Perry, S. F. (1989). Die Lungenmorphologie der Warane (Reptilia: Varanidae) und ihre systematisch-stammesgeschichtliche Bedeutung. Bonner Zoologische Beitrage, 4(1), 27-56.

Bedford, G. S., & Christian, K. A. (1996). Tail morphology related to habitat of varanid lizards and some other reptiles. Amphibia-Reptilia, 17, 131-140.

Bels, V. L., Gasc, J. P., Goosse, V., Renous, S., & Vernet, R. (1995). Functional analysis of the throat display in the sand goanna Varanus griseus (Reptilia: Squamata: Varanidae). J. Zool. Lond.., 235, 95-116.

Bels, V.L., J.P. Gasc, V. Goosse, S. Renous and R. Vernet. (1995). Functional analysis of the throat display in the sand goanna Varanus griseus (Reptilia: Squamata: Varanidae). Journal of Zoology. 236 ( Part 1): 95-116.

Bennett, A. F. (1972). The effect of activity on oxygen consumption, oxygen debt, and heart rate in the Lizards Varanus gouldii and Sauromalus hispidus. J. Comp. Physiol., 79, 259-28.

Bennett, A. F. (1973). Ventilation in two species of lizards during rest and activity. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 46A, 653-671.

Bennett, A. F., & Ruben, J. A. (1979). Endothermy and Activity in Vertebrates. Science, 26, 649-654.

Bennett, D. (1990). Monitor Lizards. Thames and Chiltern Herpetological Group Magazine, December(112), 4-12.

Bennett, D. (1993). Observations on the social interactions of Varanus (Odatria) storri in captivity. South West Herpetological Society Journal, 2(3), 2-6.

Bennett, D. (1993). Some remarks on longevity in monitor lizards. South West Herpetological Society Journal, 2(3), 27-29.

Berney, F. L. (1936). Gould's Monitor (Varanus gouldiae). The Queensland Naturalist, September, 12-14.

Bickler, P., & Anderson, R. A. (1986). Ventilation, gas exchange, and aerobic scope in a small monitor lizard, Varanus gilleni. Physiol. Zool., 59(1), 76-83.

Birchard, G. F., Walsh, T., Rosscoe, R., & Reiber, C. L. (1995). Oxygen uptake by Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodensis) eggs: the energetics of prolonged development in a reptile. Physiological Zoology, 68(4), 622-633.

Biswas, S., & Kar, S. (1981). Some observations on nesting habits and biology of Varanus salvator (Laurenti) of Bhitarkanika Sanctuary, Orissa. J. Bombay Natural History Society, 78, 303-308.

Bohme, W. (1988). The argus monitor (Varanus panoptes, Storr 1980) of New Guinea: Varanus panoptes horni ssp. n. Salamandra, 24(2/3), 87-101.

Bohme, W. (1995). Hemiclitoris discovered: a fully differentiated erectile structure in female monitor lizards (Varanus spp.) (Reptilia: Varanidae). J. Zoo. Syst. Evol. Research., 33, 129-132.

Bohme, W. (1991). The identity of Varanus gouldii (Gray, 1838), and the nomenclature of the V. gouldii species complex. Mertensiella, 2, 38-41.

Bohme, W. (1991). New finding on the hemipenal morphology of monitor lizards and their systematic implications. Mertensiella, 2, 42-49.

Bohme, W., Fritz, J. P., & Schutte, F. (1987). The discovery of a giant monitor lizard (Sauria: Varanus) from the Arabian Republic of Yemen. Herpetofauna, 46(Feb.), 13-20.

Bohme, W., Joger, U., & Schatti, B. (1989). A new monitor lizard (Reptilia: Varanidae) from Yemen, with notes on ecology, phylogeny and zoogeography. Fauna of Saudia Arabia, 1, 433-448.

Bohme, W., & Ziegler, T. (1997). On the synonymy and taxonomy of the Bengal monitor lizard, Varanus bengalensis (Daudin, 1802) complex (Sauria: Varanidae). Amphibia-Reptila, 18, 207-211.

Bohme, W., & Ziegler, T. (1997). A taxonomic review of the Varanus (Polydaedalus) niloticus (Linnaeus, 1766) species complex. Herpetological Journal, 7, 155-162.

Bolette, D.P. (1998). Hastospiculum spiralis N. sp. (Nematoda: Diplotriaenoidea: Dicheilonematinae), from an Indoneasian mangrove monitor, Varanus indicus(Reptilia: Sauria: Varanidae). J. Parasitology, 84, 366-369.

Bosch, H. (1991). The pentastome Elenia Heymons, 1932, a parasite genus specific to monitors from the Australian region. - Biology and aspects of host specificity. Mertensiella, 2, 50-56.

Boylan, T. (1995). Field observations, captive breeding and growth rates of the Lace monitor, Varanus varius. Herpetofauna, 25(1), 10-14.

Boyle, D. N., & Lamoreaux, W. E. (1983-1984). Captive reproduction in the Pygmy Mulga monitor Varanus gilleni at the Dallas Zoo. Annual Reptile Symposium on Captive Breeding and Husdandry .

Branch, W. (1991). The regenia registers of "Gogga" Brown (1869-1909) "Memoranda on a species of monitor or Varan". Mertensiella, 2, 57-110.

Branch, W. R., & Erasmus, H. (1982). Notes on reproduction in South African water monitors, Varanus niloticus nitolicus , (Sauria: Varanidae). J. Herp. Assoc. Africa, 28, 4-9.

Brattstrom, B. H. (1973). Rate of heat loss by large Australian monitor lizards. Bulletin Southern California Academy of Sciences, 72(1), 52-54.

Braysher, M. l., & Green, B. (1970). Absorption of water and electrolytes from the cloaca of an Australian lizard, Varanus gouldii (Gray). Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 35, 67-614.

Bredl, J. (1983). First record of captive propagation of the Lace monitor, Varanus varius (Sauria: Varanidae). Herpetofauna, 15(1), 2-21.

Bredl, J., & Horn, H.-G. (1987). Uber die Nachzucht australischen Riesenwarans Varanus giganteus (Gray, 1845). Salamandra, 23(2/3), 9-96.

Broer, W., & Horn, H.-G. (1985). Erfahrungen bei Verwendung eines Motorbruters zur Zeitigung von Reptilieneiern. Salamandra, 21(4), 34-31.

Bush, B., Maryan, B., Browne-Cooper, R., & Robinson, D. (1995). A Guide to the Reptiles and Frogs of the Perth Region. Perth: University of Western Australia Press.

Card, W. (1994). Double clutching Gould's monitors (Varanus gouldii) and Gray's monitors (Varanus olivaceus) at the Dallas Zoo. Herpetological Review, 25(3), 111-112.

Card, W., & Kluge, A. G. (1995). Hemipeneal skeleton and varanid lizard systematics. J. Herpetology, 29(2), 275-280.

Carlsen, G. (1982). Breeding green tree monitors. Herpetology, 12(2), 4-6.

Carpenter, C. C., Gillingham. J. C., Murphy, J. B., & Mitchell, L. A. (1976). A further analysis of the combat ritual of the Pygmy Mulga monitor, Varanus gilleni (Reptilia : Varanidae). Herpetologica, March, 35-4.

Carrier, D. R. (1987). Lung ventilation during walking and running in four species of lizards. Exp. Biol., 47, 33-42.

Carter, D. B. (1991). Courtship and mating in wild Varanus varius (Varanidae: Australia). Mertensiella, 2, 266.

Carter, D. B. (1991). Reproductive cycle of female Varanus varius in south eastern Australia. Mertensiella, 2, 266.

Case, T. J., & Schwaner, T. D. (1993). Island/mainland body size differences in Australian varanid lizards. Oecologia, 94, 12-19.

Chippindale, P. (1991). Captive breeding of the Timor monitor (Varanus timorensis similis). Herp. Review, 22(2), 52-53.

Christian, A., & Garland, T. (1996). Scaling limb proportions in monitor lizards (Squamata: Varanidae). J. Herpetology, 30(2), 219-230.

Christian, A., & Garland, T. (1996). Scaling limb proportions in monitor lizards (Squamata: Varanidae). J. Herpetology, 30(2), 219-230.

Christian, K. A., & Conley, K. E. (1994). Activity and resting metabolism of varanid lizards as compared to 'typical' lizards. Aust. J. Zool. 42, 185-195.

Christian, K. A., Corbett, L. K., Green, B., & Weavers, B. W. (1995). Seasonal activity and energetics of two species of varanid lizards in tropical Australia. Oecologia, 103, 349-357.

Christian, K. A. (1995). Varanus panoptes and Varanus gouldii diet and predation. Herp. Review, 26,146.

Christian, K. A., Weavers, B. A., Green, B., & Bedford, G. S. (1996). Energetics and water flux in a semiaquatic lizard, Varanus mertensi. Copeia, 1996(2), 354-362.

Christian, K. A., & Weavers, B. W. (1996). Thermoregulation of monitor lizards in Australia: An evaluation of methods in thermal biology. Ecological Monographs, 66(2), 139-157.

Christian, K., & Bedford. G. (1996). Thermoregulation by the spotted tree monitor, Varanus scalaris, in the seasonal tropics of Australia. J . Therm. Biology, 21(2), 67-73.

Christian, K., Green, B., Bedford, G., & Newgrain, K. (1996). Seasonal metabolism of a small, arboreal monitor lizard, Varanus scalaris, in tropical Australia. J. Zool. Lond., 240, 383-396.

Christian, K. A., Bedford, G. S. & Shannahan, S. R. (1996). The solar absorptance of some Australian lizards and its relationship to temperature. Aust. J. Zool. 44, 59-67.

Christian, K., & Weavers, B. (1994). Analysis of the activity and energetics of the lizard Varanus rosenbergi. Copeia, 1994(2), 289-295.

Christian, K. A., Baudinette, R. V. & Pamula, Y. (1997). Energetic costs of activity by lizards in the filed. Functional Ecology. 11, 392-397.

Christian, T. (1977). Notes on Varanus glebopalma. Vic. Herp. Soc. Newsletter, 6, 11-13.

Christian, T. (1981). Varanus tristis - A variable monitor. Herpetofauna, 12(2), 7-12.

Ciofi, C.(1999). The Komodo dragon. Scientific American, 3, 92-99.

Cisse, M. (19??). The genital cycle of varanids in Senegal. Bulletin De LÍnstitute Fondamental Afrique Noire, 38(1), 188-205.

Cloudsley-Thompson, J. L. (1969). Diurnal Rhythm of activity in the Nile Monitor. British Journal of Herpetology, 112-114.

Cohn, J. P. (1994). Indonesian treasure has a Jurassic appeal. BioScience, 44(1), 4-7.

Cowles, R. B. (1930). The Life History of Varanus niloticus. J. Entomology and Zoology, 22(1), 1-31.

Curry-Lindahl, K. (1979). Thermal ecology of the tree agama (Agama atricollis) in Zaire with a review of heat tolerance in reptiles. J. Zool., Lond., 188, 185-22.

Datong, Y., & Wanzhao, L. (1994). Relationships among species groups of Varanus from southern southeastern Asia with description of a new species from Vietnam. Zoological Research, 15(1), 11-15.

Davis, R. B., & Phillips, L. G. (1991). A method of sexing the Dumeril's monitor, Varanus dumerili. Herp. Review, 22(1), 18-19.

Doles, M., & Card, W. (1995). Delayed fertilization in the Monitor lizard Varanus gouldii. Herpetological Review, 26(4), 196.

Don, M., Estany, A., Ramos, A. L. R., & Muchlinski, A. (1994). Re-examination of the Afebrile response in two lizard species (Varanus exanthematicus and Gerrhosaurus major). J. Herpetology, 28(3), 385-388.

Dryden, G. L., Green, B., Wikramanayake, E. D., & Dryden, K. G. (1992). Energy and water turnover in two tropical varanid lizards, Varanus bengalensis and V. salvator. Copeia, 1992(1), 12-17.

Dryden, G. L., & Wikramanayake, E. D. (1991). Space and time sharing by Varanus salvator and V. bengalensis in Sri Lanka. Mertensiella, 2, 111-119.

Dryden, G., Green, B., King, D., & Losos, J. (1990). Water and energy turnover in a small monitor lizard Varanus acanthurus. Aust. Wildl. Res..

Dujsebayeva (Matveyeva), T. (1995). Varanus griseus (Desert monitor lizard). Reproduction. Herpetological Review. 26 (2):100.

Dunson, W. A. (1974). Salt gland secretion in a mangrove monitor lizard. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 47A, 1245-1255.

Dwyer, Q., & Bayless, M. K. (1996). Notes on the husbandry and reproductive behaviour of the Argus monitor (Varanus gouldii horni). Advances in Herpeticulture, 81-85.

Earll, C. R. (1982). Heating, cooling and oxygen consumption rates in Varanus bengalensis. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 72A, 377-381.

Ehmann, H., Swan, G., & Swan, G. S. B. (1991). Nesting, egg incubation and hatching by the Heath monitor Varanus rosenbergi in a termite mound. Herpetofauna, 21(1), 17-24.

Eidenmuller, B. (1994). Bemerkungen zur haltung und zucht von Varanus acanthurus Boulenger, 1885, V. storri Mertens, 1966 und V. gilleni Lucas & Frost, 1895. Herpetofauna, 16(88), 6-12.

Eidenmuller, B. (1989). Beobachtungen bei der haltung und nachzucht von Varanus (Odatria) tristis orientalis Fry, 1913. Salamandra, 25(3/4), 265-271.

Eidenmuller, B. (1990). Beobachtungen bei der haltung und nachzucht von Varanus (Varanus) mertensi Glauerti, 1951. Salamandra, 26(2/3), 132-139.

Eidenmuller, B. (1986). Beobachtungen bei der pflege und nachzucht von Varanus (Odatria) t. timorensis (Gray, 1831). Salamandra, 22(2/3), 157-161.

Eidenmuller, B. (1997). Haltung und zucht von waranen. Reptilia, 2(5), 22-25.

Eidenmuller, B. (1996). Keeping and breeding the Aru: Black tree monitor. Reptiles, 76-83.

Eidenmuller, B. (1991). Kurze Mitteilungen: Zwillingsanlage bei Varanus (Varanus) mertensi Glauerti, 1951. Salamandra, 27(4), 282-283.

Eidenmuller, B. (1995). Successful breeding of Mertens' monitor lizard, Varanus mertensi. The Vivarium, 7(2), 18-20.

Eidenmuller, B. (1997). Warane. Offenbach, Herpeton.

Eidenmuller, B., & Horn, H.-G. (1985). Eigene nachzuchten und der gegenwartige strand der nachzucht von Varanus (Odatria) storri Mertens, 1966. Salamandra, 21(1), 55-61.

Eidenmuller, B., & Langner, C. (1998). Bemerkungen zu haltung zucht des Pilbara-Felsenwarans Varanus pilbarensis Storr, 1980.Herpetofauna, 20(117, 5-10.

Eidenmuller, B., & Wicker, R. (1998). Beobachtungen an Varanus mertensi- gelegen inkubiert unter verschiedenen bedingungen. Herpetofauna, 20(116), 30-34.

Eidenmuller, B., & Wicker, R. (1997). The breeding of Gillen's pygmy monitor Varanus gilleni, Lucas & Frost 1895. Herpetofauna, 27(1), 2-6.

Eidenmuller, B., & Wicker, R. (1991). Einige beobachtungen bei der pflege und nachzucht von Varanus (Odatria) timorensis similis Mertens, 1958. Salamandra, 27(3), 187-193.

Eidenmuller, B., & Wicker, R. (1995). The successful breeding of Mertens' monitor lizard, Varanus mertensi, Glauerti 1951. Herpetofauna, 25(2), 4-7.

Eidenmuller, B., & Wicker, R. (1993). Varanus (Odatria) prasinus beccarii (Doria, 1874), pflege und zucht. Salamandra, 28(3/4), 171-178.

Erdelen, W. (1991). Conservation and population ecology of monitor lizards: the water monitor Varanus salvator Laurenti in south Sumatra. Mertensiella, 2, 120-135.

Fleay D. (1950). Goannas: Giant lizards of the Australian bush. Animal Kingdom, 53(3), 92-96.

Frappell, P.B. & Mortola, J.P. (1998). Passive body movement and gas exchange in the frilled lizard (Chlamydosaurus kingii) and goanna (Varanus gouldii). J. Exp. Biol. 201. 2307-2311.

Francaz, J.-M. and Vernet R. (1976). Application of radiotelemetry: study of the evolution of internal temperature and the electrocardiogram in (Varanus griseus). Bull.Soc.Zool.Fr. 101 (5):975-976.

Fritz, J. P., & Fritz, B. (1991). Karyotypic characterization of Varanus yemenensis (Reptilia: Varanidae). Mertensiella, 2, 136-142.

Fuller, S., Baverstock, P., & King, D. (1997). Biogeographic origins of goannas (Varanidae): a molecular perspective. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, in press.

Gaulke, M. (1991). On the diet of the water monitor, Varanus salvator, in the Philippines. Mertensiella, 2, 143-153.

Gaulke, M. (1991). Systematic relationships of the Philippine water monitors as compared with Varanus s. salvator, with a discussion of dispersal routes. Mertensiella, 2, 154-167.

Glass, M. L., Wood, S. C., Hooyt R. W., & Johansen K.. (1979). Chemical control of breathing in the lizard, Varanus exanthematicus. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 62A, 999-13.

Glazebrook, R. (1977). Old man goanna. North Queensland Naturalist, 44(170), 4-6.

Gleeson, T. T. (1981). Preferred Body Temperature, Aerobic Scope, and Activity Capacity in the Monitor Lizard, Varanus salvator. Physiol. Zool., 54(4), 423-429.

Gleeson, T. T., Mitchell, G. S., & Bennett, A. F. (1980). Cardiovascular responses to graded activity in the lizards Varanus and Iguana. Am. J. Physiol., 239, R174-R179.

Gleeson, T. T., & Bennett, A. F. (1982). Acid-base imbalance in lizards during activity and recovery. J. Exp. Biol., 98, 439-453.

Gow, G. F. (1982). Notes on the reproductive biology of the pygmy Mulga goanna Varanus gilleni Lucus & Frost 1895. N.T. Naturalist, 1(2), 19-20.

Green, B. (1991). Aspects of water and energy metabolism in varanids. Mertensiella, 2, 266.

Green, B. (1972). Water losses of the sand goanna (Varanus gouldii) in its natural environment. Ecology, 53, 452-457.

Green, B., Dryden, G., & Dryden, K. (1991). Field energetics of a large carnivorous lizard, Varanus rosenbergi. Oecologia, 88, 547-551.

Green, B., & King, D. (1978). Home range and activity patterns of the sand goanna, Varanus gouldii (Reptilia: Varanidae). Aust. J. Wildl. Res., 5, 417-412.

Green, B., King, D., & Butler, H. (1986). Water, sodium and energy turnover in free-living Perenties, Varanus giganteus. Aust. Wildl. Res., 34, 589-595.

Greene, H. W. (1986). Diet and arboreality in the Emerald Monitor, Varanus prasinus, with comments on the study of adaptation. Fieldiana, 31, 1-12.

Gupta, B.K. (1996). A note on reproduction in the desert monitor (Varanus griseus). Hamadryad. 21: 43.

Gupta, B.K. (1996). On the tick Aponoma gervaisi in Varanus bengalensis and V. griseus. Hamadryad. 21, 43-44.

Haagner, G. V., Hall, R. L., & Branch, W. R. (1993). Varanidae: Varanus niloticus niloticus. J. Herpetol. Assoc. Africa, 42 Sept(38).

Hagen, H., Horn, H.-G., & Hagen, W. (1995). Zu balz- und kopulationsverhalten des nilwarans (Varanus n. niloticus) -eine fotografishe doumentation. Herpetofauna, 17(98), 29-33.

Hairston, C. S., & Burchfield, P. M. (1992). The reproduction and husbandry of the water monitor Varanus salvator at Gladys Porter Zoo, Brownsville. Int. Zoo Yb., 31, 124-130.

Hairston, C., & Burchfield, P. (1990). A sustained captive breeding program for a large varanid lizard Varanus salvator at the Gladys Porter Zoo. AAZPA Regional Conference Proceedings, 1990, 22-28.

Harvey, M. B., & Barker, D. G. (1998). A new species of blue-tailed monitor lizard (Genus Varanus) from Halmahera Island, Indonesia. Herpetologica, 54(1), 34-44.

Hicks, J. W., Ishimatsu, A., & Heisler, N. (1987). Oxygen and carbon dioxide transport characteristics of the blood of the Nile monitor lizard (Varanus niloticus). J. Exp. Biol., 13, 27-38.

Holmes, R. S., King, M., & King, D. (1975). Phenetic relationship among varanid lizards based upon comparative electrophorectic data and karyotypic analyses. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 3, 257-262.

Hopkins, S. R., Hicks, J. W., Cooper, T. K., & Powell, F. L. (1995). Ventilation and pulmonary gas exchange during exercise in the savannah monitor lizard (Varanus exanthematicus). J. Exp. Biology, 198, 1783-1789.

Horn, G.-H., & Visser, G. J. (1991). Basic Data on the Biology of Monitors. Mertensiella, 2, 176-187.

Horn, G. H., & Visser, G. J. (1997). Review of reproduction of monitor lizards Varanus spp. in captivity II. Int. Zoo Yb, 35, 227-246.

Horn, H. G. (1991). Breeding of the Lace monitor (Varanus varius) for the 1st time outside of Australia (Reptilia: Sauria: Varanidae). Mertensiella, 2, 168-175.

Horn, H. G. (1978). Nachzucht von Varanus gilleni (Reptilia: Sauria: Varanidae). Salamandra , 14(1), 29-32.

Horn, H.-G., & Visser, G. (1988). Free-ranging observations and some morphometric data on Varanus giganteus. Salamandra, 24(2/3).

Horn, H. G., & Visser, G. J. (1991). Basic data on the biology of monitors. Mertensiella, 2, 176-187.

Horn, H.-G., & Visser, G. J. (1988). Observations on Varanus giganteus with some morphometric statements. Salamandra, 24(2/3), 102-118.

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