Policy Research Project:  2001-2002

Sponsored by the LBJ Foundation

 

STRATEGY AND ARMS CONTROL RECONSIDERED:

Missile Defense, Nuclear Proliferation and

U.S. National Security Policy during the 1960Ýs

 

Case Studies and their Implications

____________________________________

 

 

Francis J. Gavin                                              With guidance from Prof. Walt Rostow        

Office:             SRH 3.220                              Phone:             471-5249                    

Office Hours:  Wed. 2:30-4                           fgavin@mail.utexas.edu

Assistant:        Rosemary Foster, 232-4020   Home:             400-A E. 32nd Street

 

 

Background:

 

Arms control and nuclear policy have once again become fundamental issues in international politics and core concerns of U.S. national security policy.  Recent nuclear test explosions by France, India, and Pakistan, the fear of loose nukes from the former Soviet Union, and the conflict between the United States and North Korea over the latterÝs atomic program, demonstrate that the question of nuclear proliferation will only grow more important in the 21st century.  In addition, President BushÝs decision to review U.S. strategy and nuclear weapons policy has been roundly criticized by the arms control community.  The administrationÝs suggestions that it may bypass formal arms control, do away with the Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty, and develop and deploy a ballistic missile defense system have been met with howls of protest. 

 

Clearly, there will be a heated discussion over next few years surrounding arms control, strategy, and national security policy.  Already the debate has been passionate and polarizing.  Do nuclear arms control regimes, such as the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty and Non-Proliferation Treaty, provide for a more stable and peaceful international order?  Or are these treaties relics of the cold war, as the Bush administration contends, irrelevant to the problems facing American and the world in the 21st century?

 

In order to understand these current debates over arms control and strategy, we must look to the past ˝ specifically, to the policy decisions that led to the NPT, SALT, and ABM Treaties in the first place.  Surprisingly, this is rarely done.  There are dozens of books written on arms control and nuclear strategy during the cold war.  Countless articles and editorials have been written in the past couple of years devoted to the questions of missile defense, nuclear proliferation, and weapons of mass destruction.  Yet there has been no systematic effort to mine the most important archival sources on the origins of this arms control regime during the 1960Ýs.  Through their research and writing, the students in this PRP will fill that void.  

 

 

Nuclear Arms Control during the Johnson Presidency

 

 

The 1960Ýs witnessed a fundamental change in the cold war competition between the United States and the Soviet Union.  After the Cuban Missile crisis, both superpowers began to pull back from the nuclear precipice.  But the conventional wisdom has not recognized the extent to which the Johnson administration actively pursued policies to lessen tensions, stabilize great power politics, and reduce the risk of thermonuclear war between the superpowers.  The administration overcame enormous bureaucratic, domestic political and alliance resistance to initiate the three most successful arms control treaties of the nuclear age ˝ the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM), the Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) and the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT).   In addition, nuclear strategy, at least on a rhetorical level, was dramatically transformed, from counterforce to damage limitation to mutually assured destruction.  And the Johnson administration actively sought to revitalize the Western Alliance in the face of these often turbulent changes, introducing the flexible response doctrine, the Trilateral negotiations, and the Nuclear Planning Group. 

 

These policies, initiated in the 1960Ýs, laid the groundwork for the US-Soviet d╚tente of the 1970Ýs.   Yet despite the obvious historical importance and policy relevance of arms control during the Johnson period, the subject has not received the attention it deserves.  One reason is that political scientists, policy participants, and strategists ˝not historians -- have contributed most of the scholarly work on arms control during the 1960Ýs.  Surprisingly little archival work has been done on the subject.  Second, the overwhelming majority of historical work on U.S. foreign policy during the 1960Ýs has focused on AmericaÝs policies towards Southeast Asia.  While understanding the Vietnam War is important, it should not obscure policies that may, in the long run, have had a greater influence on the outcome of the Cold War and more relevance today. 

 

Research Questions

 

 

Why did American policymakers eagerly pursue both horizontal (the partial test ban and non-proliferation treaties) and vertical (ABM and SALT) arms control during the 1960Ýs?  Were these arms control polices driven by a desire to freeze the action-reaction cycle and establish strategic stability, as is often claimed?  Or were the Kennedy and Johnson administrations animated by fundamentally different concerns than those of the arms control community, such as power-political considerations in Central Europe and East Asia?   How did the domestic political and bureaucratic debates on arms control and nuclear strategy play themselves out during the 1960Ýs?  And how did arms control policy influence relations within the Western alliance, and vice-versa?  Finally, what lessons can these policy debates from the 1960Ýs have for the current debate within the United States over the future of strategy and arms control?  Based on preliminary work in the archives, I contend that the answer to these questions is nowhere near as obvious as many national security scholars and arms control experts assume.  Fortunately, recently declassified archival materials ˝ primarily from the LBJ Presidential library -- hold the key to understanding the origins of nuclear arms control and the transformation strategy during the 1960Ýs.  Analyzing these documents will also provide key insights into current policy dates over missile defense and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. 

 

Participants in this PRP will obtain key skills and expertise.  First, working both individually and collaboratively with primary sources, students will develop excellent research and analysis skills.  Second, students will gain first hand knowledge about how U.S. national security policy is made.  Research in the Presidential archives allows students to recreate and analyze policy development and implementation -- if you want to understand national security policy, detailed historical research is the next best thing to actually being in the room when the decisions are made.  Third, students will have a chance to produce original scholarship on a topic of fundamental historical importance.  Finally, these subjects have current and future policy relevance.  This project will enable students to participate in ongoing debates on nuclear strategy, the missile defense question and the future of the Non-Proliferation Treaty. 

 

 

Course Structure and Responsibilities

 

 

Each student will have four responsibilities.  First, each student must attend class, complete assignments, and actively participate in group, guest speaker and issue meetings.  Second, each student will organize, outline, research, write, and re-write two case studies.  Third, each student will help other students, both within and outside their issue group(s), with research and editing.  Finally, each student will be in a function group (see below).

 

Each student will choose a primary issue group and a secondary issue group (this is not to imply that one case will be more important or better than the other; only that you will have more group obligations for your primary case.)  In each issue group, there will be several positions of responsibility, including group leader, document leader, bibliographer, and liaison with other groups.

 

Listed below are the suggested case study topic groups and possibilities for case studies.  These are only suggestions ˝ you can chose to frame your case study in the way you think best (albeit in consultation with your group and me).  

 

* IF YOU HAVE FOREIGN LANGUAGE SKILLS ˝ PARTICULARLY RUSSIAN, GERMAN, OR FRENCH ˝ AND ARE INTERESTED IN USING THEM IN THIS PROJECT ˝ LET ME KNOW. 

 

CASE STUDY TOPIC GROUPS

 

Issue Group One:                 The Non-Proliferation Treaty

 

Potential Case Studies:

 

Non-Proliferation and Problem States

-       NPT and the German Question

-       NPT, MLF, and European Nuclear Question

-       NPT and South America (esp. Brazil)

-       NPT and the Middle East (Israel and Egypt)

-       NPT and East Asia (Japan, South Korea, Taiwan)

-       NPT and India ˝ Security Guarantee?

 

Relationship between the NPT and ABM Decisions

NPT and Verification

 

 

Issue Group Two:                  The ABM Decisions˝Partial Deployment and Negotiations with the Soviets

 

Potential Case Studies

 

U.S. and Soviet Missile Defense Capabilities, 1963-1968

Nike-X: A Budgetary History

Alliance Politics and the ABM Question

ABM and China

Decision for Partial Deployment

Bureaucratic Politics and the ABM Decision

Link between ABM, NPT and SALT

ABM and counterforce/first strike strategy

 

 

Issue Group Three:              Nuclear Strategy and Alliance Politics

 

Potential Case Studies

 

McNamaraÝs ýNo Citiesţ Speech                                          

McNamara and Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD)

The Strategy of Flexible Response

Nuclear Politics and the German Question

The Multilateral Force

The Nuclear Planning Group

Tactical Nuclear Weapons in Europe

Nuclear Sharing

The French Nuclear Program

Conventional Forces and Arms Control

The Harmel Report

The Trilateral Negotiations

 

Issue Group Four:                Offensive Nuclear Systems and Strategic Arms Limitation Negotiations

 

Potential Case Studies

 

The U.S. Arms Control Agenda during the 1960Ýs

The Gilpatric Committee

Targeting/SIOP vs. Rhetorical Policy ˝ Why the Gap?

How much is enough?  ICBM Deployment Decisions

The Origins of SALT

Offense-Defense Dynamic: The Link Between SALT and ABM

The Link between SALT and the NPT

Chinese Nuclear Capabilities and Relations with the Soviet Union, 1963-1968

Domestic Pressures and the Role of Congress in Arms Control Policy

McNamara, DoD Budgeting, and AmericaÝs Unilateral Freeze on New ICBMs

The Development of MIRV

Other Technological Improvements

C-3 I and Decapitation

 

 

FUNCTION GROUPS

 

 

EACH STUDENT SHOULD CHOOSE ONE GROUP

 

Function Group One:             Public Relations and Expert Speakers

 

This group will be responsible for selecting, inviting, and entertaining guest speakers for the course.  This group will also be asked to publicize and market the PRP research and products with interested academic groups, think tanks, policy organizations, and the press.  You will also be responsible for organizing a year-end conference where the papers, case studies, and document books will be presented and discussed.

 

Function Group Two:            Editors ˝ Primary Document Reader

 

This group will be responsible for selecting and editing the documents to be included in a document reader to be published in hard-copy and on the web.  If done well, this reader could be the most visible and important end product of the PRP, used by historians, policy analysts, and public intellectuals in the current debate over arms control and strategy.

 

Function Group Three:           Case Study Editors

 

The case study group is responsible for selecting and editing the case studies to be included in the final book product.  Also responsible for working with the office of publications to design and edit the book, and to make sure all writing and editing deadlines are met.

 

Function Group Four:            Web Editors

 

Working with the web specialist at the school and the library, he students would help design and construct a high-profile internet site that would be hosted jointly by the LBJ library and school.  Documents, case studies, and interview transcripts would be made available. 

 

Names of people you should know for the function groups ˝ these are the people you will be working with!

 

Public Relations, School                     Megan Scarborough, megan@mail.utexas.edu

Public Relations, Library                    Robert Hicks, robert@lbjlib.utexas.edu

 

Web, School                                        Shiloh Bucher shiloh@mail.utexas.edu

Web, Library                                       Fletcher Burton, fletcher.burton@nara.gov

 

Publications, School                            Marilyn Duncan, mduncan@mail.utexas.edu

Publications, Library                          Ted Gittinger, tedg@lbjlib.utexas.edu

 

Documents                                          Mike Parrish, mparrish@redbud.lbjlib.utexas.edu

 

Senior Supervisory Archivist             Tina Houston, tina.houston@nara.gov

 

 

TENTATIVE SCHEDULE

 

 

August 30                               Introduction

 

 

September 6th                      Historical Research and Primary Documents

 

DUE:   A 1-2 Page Summary Of Your Experience Using The Research Tools Below

 

We will meet at the LBJ Presidential Library for this session.  Our goal will be to discuss how to conduct historical research and how to write a historical case study.  

 

1.         Read Doing Cold War History: A Practical Guide, located at:

http://www.history.upenn.edu/trachtenberg/guide/guidehome.html

Pay special attention to part one and four.

 

Read Part One and Three of Michael CarleyÝs web site, Publish Well and Wisely

http://www.history.upenn.edu/trachtenberg/guide/publishwell.html

Compare with Writing for International Security: A ContributorÝs Guide

http://ksgnotes1.harvard.edu/BSCIA/Library.nsf/wwwdocsname/ISWriteForIS

 

 

2.         Read Marc TrachtenbergÝs ýMaking Sense of the Nuclear Age,ţ History and Strategy, pp. 261-286

 

3.         Get your hands ýdirtyţ using historical documents.  In the past ten years, the archival world has been revolutionized by the availability of electronic sources.  This makes our job much easier, and much more fun. 

 

 

a.              First, look at the LBJ Library web site, especially the reference room section.  Look at the links below, and experiment with the oral history and tapes page (i.e. put in the word ýnuclearţ or ýabmţ in the tapes search engine and see what you come up with.

 

LIST OF MATERIALS ON NUCLEAR POWER AND NUCLEAR WEAPONS IN THE LBJ LIBRARY (April 1996)

http://www.lbjlib.utexas.edu/johnson/archives.hom/searches.hom/forpol.hom/lbj_nuke_search.html

 

LIST OF MATERIALS ON WESTERN EUROPE AND NATO (1993)

http://www.lbjlib.utexas.edu/johnson/archives.hom/searches.hom/forpol.hom/lbj_nato_western_europe.html

 

Telephone Conversations Search Page

http://www.lbjlib.utexas.edu/johnson/archives.hom/Dictabelt.hom/lbj_recordings/dicta_srch.asp

 

LBJ LIBRARY ORAL HISTORY COLLECTION

http://www.lbjlib.utexas.edu/johnson/archives.hom/oralhistory.hom/com_ohlist.html

 

ONLINE LBJ LIBRARY ORAL HISTORY COLLECTION

http://www.lbjlib.utexas.edu/johnson/archives.hom/biopage.asp

 

 

b.              Look at these two National Security Memorandum ˝ these documents are essentially orders from the President to his foreign policy advisors to pursue a particular policy or set of objectives.  One of your jobs will be to analyze the events leading up to these directives, and then see how they were implemented:

 

NSAM 320: Task Force on Nuclear Proliferation

http://www.lbjlib.utexas.edu/johnson/archives.hom/NSAMs/nsam320.asp

 

NSAM 335 Preparation of an Arms Control Policy

http://www.lbjlib.utexas.edu/johnson/archives.hom/NSAMs/nsam335.asp

 

 

c.         Look at some of the archival sources that you will be using outside of the LBJ Library.  The most important will be the FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES SERIES, which can be purchased or viewed on-line at: http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/frus/johnsonlb/ In addition to documents from the Johnson White house (and particularly the office of National Security Advisor), these volumes are made up of documents from the State Department, Defense Department, CIA and other executive-level foreign policy bodies.  There are two volumes that you will read cover to cover by the end of this semester --

Arms Control and Disarmament ˝ 1964-1968, found at: http://www.state.gov/www/about_state/history/vol_xi/index.html and Soviet Union ˝ 1964-1968, found at http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/frus/johnsonlb/xiv/

 

Both are available on-line, and in our both the school and Presidential Library at JX 233.  I prefer the hard copies myself, which can be purchased from the Government Printing Office or Amazon.com ˝ it allows me to take notes and make marks.  But you can use the on-line version if you prefer.

 

 

d.         Two other on-line document sources you should investigate are The Declassified Document Reference System http://www.ddrs.psmedia.com/

and The National Security Archive:  Digital National Security Archive http://nsarchive.chadwyck.com/ You need a UT EID to access both of these from your computer (you have to reconfigure your browser at home as well).  The DDRS is sort of a central clearing house for all declassified government documents in the United States.  They have an excellent on-line search engine, as does the Digital National Security Archive (which focuses solely on foreign policy and national security topics).  Try searching for terms like ýnon-proliferation treatyţ or ýflexible responseţ and see what you come up with.

 

 

The Second Part of the class (4 to 6 pm) we talk with the archival staff at the LBJ Library about research in the archives.  We will meet Harry Middleton, the esteemed (and sadly, retiring) director of the library.   Dr. Michael Parrish, an archivist and working historian, will give an overview of how to use the library.  He will also tell us strategies he uses to devise an archival research plan.  Mike will be our point man at the library.

 

 

September 13th          Different Approaches to Arms Control

 

DUE:   Your first and second choice for primary issue group (and possible case study), and your first and second choice for function group.  Write a paragraph or two explaining why you should be in each (i.e. language or web skills, particular interest, etc).

 

 

WE WILL MEET AT THE LBJ LIBRARY FOR THIS SESSION

 

1.         How are we to understand arms control policy?  You will encounter contending views in the readings below, which we will try to make sense of in our discussion:

 

a.     Marc Trachtenberg, "The Past and Future of Arms Control," Daedalus (Winter 1991), reprinted in Emanuel Adler, ed., The International Practice of Arms Control http://www.history.upenn.edu/trachtenberg/DAEDALUS.CV.rtf

 

Marc Trachtenberg, ýPrefaceţ and ýStrategic Thought in America, 1952-1966,ţ from History and Strategy, pp. vii.- xii., and pp. 3-46.

 

b.   Thomas C. Schelling and Morton H. Halperin, Strategy and Arms Control, pp. 1-143.

 

Recommended:

Walt W. Rostow, Draft Chapter 5, Open Skies

 

2.         The second part of the class (4 ˝ 6 p.m.) we will have the pleasure of meeting

Prof. Walt Rostow, who among other impressive accomplishments was President JohnsonÝs National Security Advisor when most of the administrationÝs key arms control policies were developed and implemented.   Prof. Rostow will discuss both substantive policy questions and methodological issues, and has kindly agreed to serve as an unofficial guide and advisor to our class.

 

 

SEPTEMBER 21ST               

 

You will meet on your own to decide the composition and leadership of the primary, secondary, and function groups.  I will try to organize the groups as much as possible, but if there are overlaps or problems, I will let you try to work them out.  You should also use this time to get to know the members of your group.  2 to 3 should be used determining the final composition of the groups, 3 to 4 should be the primary issue groups meeting and determining leadership positions, 4 to 5 should be function groups, and 5 to 6 pm should be secondary groups meeting.

 

There is a chance that we will meet Friday afternoon.  Thursday I will be at a library symposium for Harry MiddletonÝs retirement, but my hope is that some of the distinguished experts coming into town for this occasion (Richard Immerman and John Prados) can be convinced to speak with our class Friday afternoon.  Look for an announcement.

 

 

SEPTEMBER 27                   HISTORICAL WORK ON ARMS CONTROL DURING THE JOHNSON PRESIDENCY

 

DUE:   Two 500 word summaries how you plan to formulate and research each of your case studies.  What is your research strategy?  What are the key questions?  What files will you need to look at?  Who might you want to interview?

 

 

As a side note: over time, you should think of who we might want to interview for this project.  There is money to arrange such a thing.  You may also want to see if there is a need for you to visit an archive that is not accessible via the web.

 

We will do two things in this class.  Discuss and debate scholarly work that has used archival sources to analyze arms control and strategy during the Johnson presidency.  Second, we will make sure all the groups are well-organized and ready to operate.

           

 

a.         John M. Clearwater, Johnson, McNamara, and the Birth of SALT and the ABM Treaty, 1963-1969, ORDER from DISSERTATION.COM http://www.dissertation.com (do this the first week of class ˝ it might take awhile to get here)

 

b.         Robert Divine, ýLyndon Johnson and Strategic Arms Limitation,ţ from The Johnson Years, Vol. 3, LBJ at Home and Abroad

 

c.         John Prados, ýPrague Spring and SALT: Arms Limitation Setback in 1968,ţ  H. W. Brands, ed., Beyond Vietnam: The Foreign Policies of Lyndon Johnson

 

 

SUGGESTED

 

Brands, H.W., The Wages of Globalism: Lyndon Johnson and the Limits of American Power, NY, 1994

 

Glenn T. Seaborg with Benjamin S. Loeb, Stemming the Tide: Arms Control during the Johnson Years (Lexington, 1987).

 

McGeorge Bundy, Danger and Survival: Choices about the Bomb in the First Fifty Years

 

Visit from Prof. Robert Divine                    2 ˝ 4 p.m.

 

 

SEMESTER SCHEDULE AND DUE DATES

 

 

These are subject to change, revision, and addition, especially as we bring in new speakers.

 

 

Bureaucratic Politics                                               October 4th

 

Read Morton Halperin, ýThe Decision to Deploy the ABM: Bureaucratic and Domestic Politics in the Johnson Administration,ţ World Politics 25 (October, 1972)

 

Function Group Action Plan                       October 11th

 

Function Groups will present a 5 page outline of what they hope to accomplish and how.

 

 

Outline and Class Presentation                 October 18th

Primary Issue Group Case Study

 

You will write up a 5-7 page outline and research plan and present it to the class for suggestions and comments.  This is also the time to determine whom you might want to interview or what archives you may need to visit.

 

 

Visit from H.W. Brands                               October 25th

 

 

Visit from Prof. Marc Trachtenberg          November 1st

 

Prof. Trachtenberg will speak on three subjects:  the history of nuclear politics during the Cold War, his view on arms control theory, and historical methodology.  You have read lots of his work, so be prepared with lots of questions!

 

 

Outline and Class Presentation                 October 25th

Secondary Issue Group Case Study

 

You will write up a 5-7 page outline and research plan and present it to the class for suggestions and comments.  This is also the time to determine whom you might want to interview or what archives you may need to visit.

 

 

First Draft, Case Study One:                     November 15th

 

Draft is to be circulated for comments among your group.  You should return comments to your group members by November 29th.

 

Also, you will present your case study to the class.

 

Remember, this is a work in progress.  You are not expected to have a conclusion yet!  While there is no length requirement, at least 15-20 good pages of footnote writing would be appropriate (although throughout this process the emphasis will be on quality over quantity ˝ the final case should be between 35-50 perfect pages).

 

Important Note:        Each time you hand in a draft, you should also provide your best documents (with a brief description of their importance) to the Document Reader Editing group!  The Document Editors must keep on top of people to make sure they are providing you with documents!

 

 

First Draft, Case Study Two:                      December 6th

 

Draft is to be circulated for comments among your group.  You should return comments to your group members by December 13th

 

 

Function Group Report:                              January 17th

 

Your function group must hand in a ten-page report on your accomplishments thus far and your plan of action.  Report is presented to class and critiqued by classmates.

 

 

Second Draft, Case Study One:                 January 24th

 

You will circulate this new draft among your group members for comments ˝ please return detailed comments by January 31st.  You will also present your findings in class.

 

 

Second Draft, Case Study Two                   February 7th

 

 

You will circulate this new draft among your group members for comments ˝ please return detailed comments by February 14th.  You will also present your findings in class.

 

Final Draft, Case Study One                      March 14th

 

This is the final version.  The Editorial Board will review the cases, make suggestions and corrections, and send them back to you to make these changes.  The Editorial Board will also start selecting case studies for inclusion in the final printed edition.

 

 

Final Draft, Case Study Two                      March 28th

 

 

Completed Document Book Due                April 19th

To Publications Office

 

 

Case Study Book Due                                  April 25th

To Publications Office

 

 

Conference and Presentation of Papers    Some time in May

To be determined by Public Relations Issue Group                                                              

 

INVITED EXPERTS AND SCHOLARS

 

Walt W. Rostow         -           SEPTEMBER 13TH

H.W. Brands               -           OCTOBER 25TH, 4-6

Philip Bobbit              -           CONFIRMED

Robert Divine             -           SEPTEMBER 27TH, 2-4

Sumit Ganguly

Admiral Bobby Ray Inam

Mark Kramer

Hans Mark

Marc Trachtenberg     -           NOVEMBER 1ST

John Prados

Thomas Schwartz

 

 

PAYING FOR PHOTOCOPIES AT THE LBJ LIBRARY

 

The LBJ Foundation awards a "one time only" grant of $75.00 for photocopying purposes to graduate students enrolled within a 50-mile radius of Austin. Application forms are available on our website or by request to the Supervisory Archivist.

 

 

USEFUL WEB LINKS

 

 

*          Indicates a very useful site for this course

 

I.          RESEARCH ˝ ARCHIVES, ONLINE DATABSES, DOCUMENT SOURCES

 

A.        LBJ LIBRARY MATERIALS AND RESEARCH TOOLS

 

*LIST OF MATERIALS ON NUCLEAR POWER AND NUCLEAR WEAPONS IN THE LBJ LIBRARY (April 1996)

http://www.lbjlib.utexas.edu/johnson/archives.hom/searches.hom/forpol.hom/lbj_nuke_search.html

 

LIST OF MATERIALS ON WESTERN EUROPE AND NATO (1993)

http://www.lbjlib.utexas.edu/johnson/archives.hom/searches.hom/forpol.hom/lbj_nato_western_europe.html

 

*Telephone Conversations Search Page

http://www.lbjlib.utexas.edu/johnson/archives.hom/Dictabelt.hom/lbj_recordings/dicta_srch.asp

 

LBJ LIBRARY ORAL HISTORY COLLECTION

http://www.lbjlib.utexas.edu/johnson/archives.hom/oralhistory.hom/com_ohlist.html

 

*ONLINE LBJ LIBRARY ORAL HISTORY COLLECTION http://www.lbjlib.utexas.edu/johnson/archives.hom/biopage.asp

 

*NSAM 320: Task Force on Nuclear Proliferation

http://www.lbjlib.utexas.edu/johnson/archives.hom/NSAMs/nsam320.asp

 

*NSAM 335 Preparation of an Arms Control Policy

http://www.lbjlib.utexas.edu/johnson/archives.hom/NSAMs/nsam335.asp

 

Indian Nuclear Weapons Program

http://www.lbjlib.utexas.edu/johnson/archives.hom/NSAMs/nsam351.asp

http://www.lbjlib.utexas.edu/johnson/archives.hom/NSAMs/nsam355.asp

 

Prof. Walt W. RostowÝs Home Page

http://www.eco.utexas.edu/faculty/Rostow

 

 

B.        FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES SERIES

 

http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/frus/johnsonlb/

 

*Arms Control and Disarmament ˝ 1964-1968 http://www.state.gov/www/about_state/history/vol_xi/index.html

 

*Soviet Union ˝ 1964-1968

http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/frus/johnsonlb/xiv/

 

C.        OTHER ARCHIVAL/DOCUMENT SOURCES

 

*Doing Cold War History: A Practical Guide

http://www.history.upenn.edu/trachtenberg/guide/guidehome.html

 

Arms Control Policy and the National Security Council ˝ Oral History Roundtable

http://www.brookings.org/fp/projects/nsc/transcripts/20000325.htm

 

Documents Relating to American Foreign Policy Nuclear Weapons

http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/nukes.htm

 

An Introduction to National Archives Records Relating to the Cold War

http://www.nara.gov/publications/rip/rip107/rip107.html

 

CIA ˝ Electronic Documents Release Center

http://www.foia.ucia.gov/

http://www.foia.ucia.gov/frame3.htm

 

*Declassified Document Reference System

http://www.ddrs.psmedia.com/

 

*Cold War International History Project

http://cwihp.si.edu/publications.htm

 

State Department FOIA Electronic Search

http://www.foia.state.gov/vstateSearch.asp

 

Harvard Project on Cold War Studies Nuclear Test Gallery

http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~hpcws/index_f.htm

 

Harvard Project on Cold War Studies ˝ Internet Sources

http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~hpcws/index_f.htm

 

*Harvard Project on Cold War Studies ˝ Links to Documents and Archives

http://www.fas.harvard.edu/%7Ehpcws/textlinks.htm

 

CNN ˝ Cold War Site

http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/

 

CNN ˝ Episode 12: MAD, 1960-1972

http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/episodes/12/

 

*Oral History Interviews for Episode 12

http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/coldwar/interviews/

 

Parallel History site on NATO and the Warsaw Pact

http://www.isn.ethz.ch/php/

 

*The National Security Archive

http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/

 

*The National Security Archive ˝ Electronic Briefing Book: Nuclear History

http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/

 

*The National Security Archive: Nuclear History at the National Security Archive

http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/nsa/NC/nuchis.html

 

*The National Security Archive:  Missile Defense Thirty Years Ago: D╚jř vu all over again?  http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB36/

 

*The National Security Archive:  Digital National Security Archive

http://nsarchive.chadwyck.com/

 

RandÝs History ˝ 50 Years of Service to the Nation

http://www.rand.org/history/

 

*The U.S. National Archives -- The Cold War Era: Records and Research at the National Archives and Records Administration http://www.nara.gov/research/bytopic/coldware.html/

 

*Other Presidential Libraries

http://www.nara.gov/nara/president/address.html

 

 

II.        POLICY ORGANIZATIONS

 

ACDIS ˝ Arms Control, Disarmament, and International Security

http://www.acdis.uiuc.edu/

 

MILNET: Nuclear Weapons

http://www.milnet.com/milnet/nuclear.htm

 

Nuclear Proliferation Information

http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/prolif.htm

 

National Resources Defense Council

http://www.nrdc.org/nuclear/default.asp

 

*Professor John Steinbruner - THE EVOLUTION OF ARMS CONTROL

http://www.puaf.umd.edu/CISSM/Scholars/PUAF%20698N%20Syllabus.htm

 

Center for Nonproliferation Studies: Monterey Institute of International Studies

http://cns.miis.edu/

 

Henry L. Stimson Center: Weapons of Mass Destruction

http://www.stimson.org/wmd.htm

 

Federation of American Scientists

http://www.fas.org/

 

W. Alton Jones: Eliminate Nuclear Danger

http://www.wajones.org/programs/secure/goals/eliminate_nukes.htm

 

Carnegie Institute for International Peace: Non-Proliferation Project

http://www.ceip.org/files/projects/npp/npp_home.ASP

 

CSIS ˝ Strategic Assessment: Arms Control

http://www.csis.org/burke/sa/index.htm#arms

 

Brookings ˝ Missile Defense and Nuclear Weapons

http://www.brookings.org/fp/projects/nmd/nmd.htm

 

Treaty On The Non-Proliferation Of Nuclear Weapons

http://www.usun-vienna.usia.co.at/npt1.htm

 

The Debate about Proliferation

http://globetrotter.berkeley.edu/TeachSem/nucbibdebate.html

 

Harvard-Kennedy School: The Project on Managing the Atom

http://ksgnotes1.harvard.edu/bcsia/mta.nsf/www/home

 

Harvard-Kennedy School International Security Program http://ksgnotes1.harvard.edu/BCSIA/ISP.nsf/www/Home

 

*Writing for International Security: A ContributorÝs Guide

http://ksgnotes1.harvard.edu/BSCIA/Library.nsf/wwwdocsname/ISWriteForIS